Read | Cased hole

Production Evaluation


With increasing numbers of high-value, horizontal wells, the range of
challenges becomes ever greater. Operators need to build a clear and
accurate picture of complex flow regimes over extended intervals
to ensure the reservoir is being managed to optimum effect.



Capacitance – Temperature – Flow

Accurate and fast
response measurement

The Capacitance/Temperature/Flow (CTF) combines a single electronics section with 3 sensors – water hold-up, fast response temperature and optimised flowmeter into a single compact tool.

Capacitance Water Hold-up: Hydrocarbons and water have different dielectric constants and the probe responds to the dielectric constant of the fluid in the well. From this the downhole water-hydrocarbon ratio can be derived.

Temperature: The platinum-resistance probe responds quickly and accurately to changes in fluid temperature.
Flowmeter electronics: Interchangeable spinner mechanical sections are fitted to the bottom of the CTF to match the well conditions and optimise flow measurements.

Benefits

  • Multiple sensor measurements combined in a single short toolstring
  • Close sensor proximity provides definitive measurement of localised well fluid properties
  • High resolution downhole fluid hold-up measurement
  • Highly accurate and fast response temperature measurement
  • Deployable on Slickline, Electric line, Coil Tubing and Tractor

Casing collar locator

Quality through
high-accuracy intelligence

The Casing Collar Locator (CCL) is used primarily to accurately correlate tools and log data to downhole casing joints or completion components. It is designed to be run in combination with a full suite of production logging and well integrity tools.

The combined quartz pressure & casing collar locator (QPC) tool is designed to minimise tool length. In addition to the correlation features of the CCL its high-sensitivity measurement produces an accurate and high-resolution pressure reading over a wide measurement range.

Benefits

  • Digitised and amplified signals for clear collar response
  • High accuracy position determination
  • Multiple sensor measurements combined in single short toolstring
  • Close sensor proximity provides definitive localised measurements

Flow array sensing tool (FAST)

Ultra compact production evaluation

Recent developments in microelectronic design have enabled the FAST technology to be developed. Through a combination of closely spaced cross sectional optical and electrical measurements, coupled with mechanical and ultrasonic flowmeters and a high resolution temperature sensor, a wide range of complex flow regimes can be accurately quantified in a variety of wellbore environments, many of which may have limited or restricted the application of conventional techniques.

Oil, water and gas phase identification is achieved by combining miniaturised and highly responsive optical, electrical and flow-meter sensors. These are positioned cross-sectionally across the well-bore at 90 degree intervals, with multiple tool sections combined to increase the spatial resolution as required. The ultra compact, robust technology is deployable with virtually any wellbore conveyance method, in open and cased hole zones.

Benefits

  • Multiple sensor measurements combined in a single, ultra compact tool string
  • Reduced deployment risk with simplified, faster rig-up
  • Resolve true three-phase hold up fractions in segregated flow conditions
  • Improved accuracy of production evaluation in deviated wells
  • Ultra low flow rate measurement with Doppler flow imaging
  • Close sensor proximity provides definitive measurement of localised well fluid properties
  • Deployable on Slickline, Electric line, Coil Tubing and Tractor

Fluid density

High-accuracy,
repeatable measurements

Through the reliability of our density technology, we provide high-accuracy, repeatable measurement across a wide fluid density range.

The Fluid Density Radioactive (FDR) uses low energy gamma rays to determine the downhole fluid density during a production log. It provides a safe and reliable measurement that is unaffected by well deviation and flowrates.

The Fluid Density Inertial (FDI) tool measures the inertial response of a vibrating tuning fork to determine the density of wellbore fluids, providing accurate fluid identification without the use of a radioactive source.

Benefits

  • High accuracy, repeatable measurements across wide fluid density range
  • Inertial sensor has  Improved performance compared with radioactive
    alternatives in very high background gamma applications (e.g. large
    quantities of radioactive scale)
  • Deployable on Slickline, Electric line, Coil Tubing and Tractor
  • Suitable for all well deviations – including horizontal.

MAPS array fluid identifiers (CAT & RAT)

Improved accuracy of
production evaluation

The Resistance Array Tool (RAT) and Capacitance Array Tool (CAT) are array fluid identifiers for highly deviated and horizontal wells.

The CAT and RAT technologies acquire 12 localised measurements, aligned in a single plane across the diameter of the wellbore, combined with an inbuilt orientation sensor, to produce an accurate cross-sectional plot of fluid phases. These measurements are transformed into localised hold-up values, which when combined with other standard and array measurements, are used to generate a powerful 3D image of the multiphase flow profile.

With its miniature capacitance sensors the CAT measures the dielectric properties of the fluid surrounding the probes. From this it is possible to resolve the presence of water, oil and gas in segregated flow regimes enabling the computation of hold-up values for each of the three individual phases.

Utilising similarly micro-sized resistance sensors, the RAT analyses the electrical conductivity of the fluid in contact with the sensor elements. This technique is highly sensitive to fast moving bubbles of oil or gas trapped within a flowing volume of water and is ideally suited to both segregated or comingled flowing regimes.

The CAT and RAT technologies provide highly complementary measurements and are frequently run in combination to achieve in-depth understanding of fluid composition and distribution of phases.

Benefits

  • Resolve true three-phase holdup fractions in segregated flow conditions
  • Improved accuracy of production evaluation for highly deviated wells
  • Deployable on Slickline, Electric line, Coil Tubing or Tractor
  • Identify and locate sinks and traps to reveal hidden hydrocarbons
  • Slim tool body with bowspring deployed sensors for thru-tubing data acquisition
  • Suitable for all well deviations – including horizontal. Comprehensive range of log analysis and report services available from READ

MAPS Spinner array tool (SAT)

Providing critical information
in complex conditions

The Spinner Array Tool (SAT) improves the accuracy of production evaluation for highly deviated wells.

It uses six mini turbines on collapsible bow-spring arms to directly measure local fluid velocities at 60-degree intervals around the circumference of the well bore.

Phase segregation coupled with high well deviation may lead to stratification, slugging or recirculation, which can further complicate data interpretation. The SAT provides the critical information to simplify and enhance understanding of complex horizontal multiphase flow regimes.

The miniature spinner assemblies are mounted on low friction jewelled bearings to reduce mechanical resistance and improve sensitivity to fluid flow.

Benefits

  • Quantify the individual flowing velocities of each fluid phase in segregated flow regimes
  • Improved accuracy of production evaluation for highly deviated wells
  • Slim tool body with bowspring deployed sensors for thru-tubing data acquisition
  • Deployable on Slickline, Electric line, Coil Tubing and Tractor
  • Designed for all well deviations – particularly horizontal

Mechanical flow meters

Delivering accurate flow information

Our range of flow meter technologies provides accurate flow determination from high-resolution measurements.

Each of the tools plays an important role in determining flow and delivering the information you need when planning the next steps for your well.

Flow meters detect fluid movement within the well bore and, while primarily delivering benefits across all aspects of production evaluation, are also critical for leak detection, particularly when combined with other sensors, including pressure, temperature and acoustic tools.

The majority of this flow metering technology can be combined with the full suite of leak detection and well integrity tools to ensure you receive the highest quality intelligence, whatever the challenge.

Benefits

  • Accurate flow determination from high resolution measurements
  • Selection of Mechanical spinners to suit conditions for all wells: be it Caged Fullbore for maximum coverage of the cross section up to 9-5/8 inch or Jewelled Flowmeters for ultra-low thresholds and excellent performance in high velocity flow
  • Combinable with full suite of Production Logging Tools
  • Deployable on electric line, with real-time surface read out.
  • Suitable for all well deviations – including horizontal.

Platinum resistance thermometer

Delivering accurate measurements

The Platinum Resistance Thermometer (PRT) tool provides a highly accurate and fast response measurement of downhole wellbore temperature, which can be used for identifying fluid entry, gas leaks and injection zones. This tool offers an excellent combination of sensitivity and range.

The PRT is small and compact and is an integral component in any production logging or well integrity toolstring.

Benefits

  • Fast response, high accuracy sensor
  • Combinable with full suite of Production Logging Tools
  • Deployable on Slickline, Electric line, Coil Tubing and Tractor
  • Suitable for all well deviations – including horizontal.

Production dual-axis (XY) caliper

Improved understanding,
increased accuracy

The Production Dual-axis Caliper (PDC) is run to correct spinner-derived fluid volumes in varied hole sizes, or to identify casing deformation and areas of deposition build-up. The caliper incorporates a pair of independent arms at 90 degrees to each other to measure casing inside diameter in the X and Y axes.

The roller-tipped caliper arms are spring loaded to make contact with the tubing or casing internal surface to measure the cross section at two independent axis. The arms are fully collapsible down to tool diameter to pass through restrictions and open again automatically once this has been passed. Each arm operates as an independent unit exerting a constant radial force in any casing diameter.

Benefits

  • Increased accuracy of production or injection profiles through improved understanding of well cross sectional area
  • Slim, low profile design provides minimal disturbance to flowing regime
  • Deployable on slickline, electric line, coil tubing or tractor

Production gamma ray

Improved understanding
of well production

The Production Gamma Ray (PGR) tool measures the naturally occurring radiation emitted by various formations.

The major applications are depth correlation, qualitative lithology determination and radioactive scale identification.

The PGR tool is compact, rugged and combines excellent sensitivity with high resolution.

Benefits

  • Improved understanding of well production through correlation with lithology
  • Identification of radioactive scale to help optimise clean-up or remediation
  • Qualitative assessment of gravel pack placement when used in conjunction with a gamma source
  • Deployable on Slickline, Electric line, Coil Tubing and Tractor

Pulsed neutron

Cased hole formation evaluation

READ’s Pulsed Neutron tool, the Reservoir Analysis System (RAS), is a state of the art, multi‑detector pulsed‑neutron tool designed for measuring reservoir saturation using Sigma and Carbon‑Oxygen techniques.

The sonde features three gamma detectors, the near and the far are high resolution Lanthanum Chloride for Sigma and C/O, the long spacing is a Sodium Iodide detector with a spacing that is sensitive to gas and porosity. It can simultaneously measure Sigma and C/O using a mixed firing pattern for the neutron generator.

Benefits

  • Increased reliability offered by robust detector materials
  • Exploit bypassed reserves
  • Monitor and evaluate reservoir fluid movements
  • Identify undesired water flow behind casing
  • Slim‑hole tool enabling access though well restrictions
  • Memory or surface read-out capability

Quartz pressure & casing collar locator

High-resolution pressure readings

Our pressure tools use high sensitivity measurements, producing accurate and high-resolution pressure readings over a wide measurement range.

The Quartz Pressure & Casing Collar Locator (QPC) tool combines multiple sensor measurements in single short toolstring, and its close sensor proximity provides definitive localised measurements.

Benefits

  • Multiple sensor measurements combined in single short toolstring
  • Close sensor proximity provides definitive localised measurements
  • High accuracy and high resolution pressure measurement over wide measurement range
  • Deployable on Slickline, Electric line, Coil Tubing and Tractor
  • Flexibility to run with the full suite of production logging and well integrity tools

Water hold-up

High accuracy and fast response

The Capacitance/Temperature/Flow (CTF) combines a single electronics section with three sensors – water hold-up, fast response temperature & optimised flowmeter – into a single compact tool.

Capacitance Water Hold-up: This probe can determine the downhole water- hydrocarbon ratio.

Temperature: The platinum-resistance probe responds quickly and accurately to changes in fluid temperature.

Flowmeter electronics: Interchangeable spinner mechanical sections are fitted to the bottom of the CTF to match the well conditions and optimise flow measurements.

Benefits

  • Multiple sensor measurements combined in single short toolstring
  • Close sensor proximity provides definitive measurement of localised well fluid properties
  • High resolution downhole fluid hold-up measurement
  • Highly accurate & fast response temperature measurement
  • Flexibility to be run with full-bore, caged or jewelled spinners
  • Deployable on slickline, electric line, coil tubing or tractor

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